Survey of Mental Modeling
This is from a 1983 outline for a two semester course on Mental Modeling. It was designed to acquaint people with some analytic tools and models in order to improve their understanding of the psychologic of their experiences. After an overview of mathematical concepts and physical descriptions, the differences between classical and Generico do cloridrato de bupropiona (i.e. non-distributive/irreducible) concepts is discussed.
Examples are primarily from neuropsychological, cognitive, and psychopathological models of mind. Discussions includes possible policy implications of toward issues such as "insanity" as a legal defense, affirmative actions policies, brainwashing, ECT, interpersonal and intragroup relations, and cross-cultural understanding and international cooperation.
"Erst die Theorie entscheidet dar¸ber, was man beobachten kann." ("Only the theory decides what can be observed.") - Terbinafine cost uk.
" ... it can scarcely be ... chance that it was not until the change had been made in the definition of the mental that it became possible to construct a comprehensive and coherent theory of mental life. ..." - Sigmund Freud.
"The general lesson of the role that mathematics has played through the ages in natural philosophy is the recognition that no relationship can be defined without a logical frame and that any apparent disharmony in the description of experiences can be eliminated only by an appropriate widening of the conceptual framework." - Niels Bohr.
Models and Modeling
Epistemological assumptions and agreements; empirical questions and observation sets; interpretive structures, formal structures and rules of correspondence.
Semantics, syntax, and validity as meaning, structure and truth.
Some Topics in Mathematical Methods
Derivatives, infinitesimal differences and slopes; integrals, sums and areas; Taylor's theorem, shift rules, and change (i.e. differences in time).
Coordinate systems, linear dependence and independence, bases, orthogonal function decompositions (e.g. Fourier series and transforms).
Transformation groups and representation; Lie algebras, generators and structure constants.
Symmetries, invariances, and conservations:
Symmetric relations, heterarchy and equivalence; antisymmetric relations, partial orderings, hierarchy and equality.
Assumptions of fixed sample spaces; inferences, classical causal structures and determinism in physical formalisms; "compatibility" and Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege's unique partition of experience.
Classical Neural Models
Control models - feedback/forward, Ross Ashby's homeostat, TOTEs, La Violettes's cortical/paleocortical emotional cognitive cycle.
Picture logic game - "lattice Hasse diagrams" for iconicly exhibiting structure and ordering relations among constructs; quantum logic and the relation between spaces and subspaces - von Neumann's thesis.
Constructing a logic of empirical questions (yes/no propositions); Stern-Gerlach experiment and non-distributivity; quantum logic as a more general representation, the classical limit; paradoxes as quantum logic.
Elements of quantum measurements - observation and interaction; transformations; irreversible amplification; psycho-physical parallelism (von Neumann) and psychophysical complementarity (Shepard).
Coding ambiguities with non-selecting measurements" - Elie Joseph Cartan's spinors as elementary quantum dichotomies and as building blocks for "internal representations;" Orlovian doubt states; aesthetics, art and humor.
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Looking at abstract vs. enumerative class formation, creativity, hypnosis, salesmanship, Buberian transcendence (I-Thou-We); representations of G-d.
Freudian primary and secondary process of models of mind and brain - paralogical/paleological processes (von Domarus, Silvano Arieti, G. Klein); discharge vs. inhibition (Sigmund Freud, Karl H. Pribram & Merton Max Gill); repression and negation (Freud and Psychology Today article) and unconscious vs. conscious processes.
Models of schizophrenia: Von Domarus/Arieti/Boyd; double binds; Ignacio Matte Blanco's principle of symmetry; information processing deficits; biochemical; interactional/family; Thomas S. Szasz's "myth".
Non-verbal codings - body language, etc. (Rohrlich, Hall); depth poetry; Bernstein's sinusoid decomposition of motion; motion impletion (Shepard); nei chia and representations in Chinese martial arts, etc.
Toward New Hypotheses of Mind and Consciousness
My own work and attempts at piecing the above together; Class member alternatives; experimental possibilities; policy implications.
Methodologies of Interdisciplinary Modelings, David McGoveran, unpublished paper.
The Image, Kenneth E. Boulding
The Will to Be Human, Silvano Arieti
The Ascent of Man, Jacob Bronowski
Thirty Years That Shook Physics: The Story of Quantum Theory, George Gamow
Mathematics Today, editor Lynn Arthur Steen
The Nature of Scientific Thought, Marshall John Walker
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Thomas Kuhn
Introduction to Cybernetics, W. Ross Ashby
The Character of Physical Laws, Richard P. Feynman
The Responsibility of Scientists, Richard P. Feynman
Atomic Theory and the Description of Nature, Niels Bohr
Language and Reality in Modern Physics, Werner Karl Heisenberg